How much do you know about export packaging requirements for lithium batteries and lithium battery equipment

Classification of lithium batteries

The first category is lithium batteries that are shipped separately. Lithium batteries, as a type of batteries using lithium metal or lithium alloy as positive/negative electrode materials and using non-aqueous electrolyte solutions, can be divided into two categories: lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium metal batteries contain lithium in metallic state and are usually not rechargeable, while lithium ion batteries do not contain lithium in metallic state and can be recharged. When shipped individually, their corresponding UN numbers are 3090 and 3480.

The second category is lithium batteries that are shipped with the device. In actual trade and transportation, lithium batteries are often shipped together with equipment. There are two main situations. One is that the battery is installed in the device, and the other is that the battery is packaged with the device. Regardless of the above situation, the corresponding UN numbers are 3091 and 3481, depending on whether it contains lithium in the metallic state.

The third category is equipment or vehicles powered by lithium batteries. In recent years, all kinds of new energy vehicles powered by lithium batteries have emerged in an endless stream, including bicycles, cars, balance vehicles, and so on. The International Maritime Dangerous Regulations assigns UN number 3171 to this product.

Relevant laws and regulations

The inspection and supervision of lithium batteries and their products are mainly based on the United Nations “Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Model Regulations”, the United Nations “Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria”, and the International Maritime Organization “International Maritime Transport of Dangerous Goods Regulations” , ICAO “Technical Regulations for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air” and “Export Dangerous Goods Packaging Inspection Regulations” (SN/T0370.1-2009) (SN/T0370.2-2009) (SN/T0370.3-2012), etc. Wait.

For example, the “International Maritime Dangerous Goods Transport Regulations” requires that export lithium batteries must pass the UN38.3 test and provide a summary of the test. Each cell and battery pack shall be equipped with a safety exhaust device, which shall be designed to prevent force damage in the event of an ordinary accident; each cell and battery pack shall be equipped with an effective device to prevent external short circuits; each contains Battery packs of multiple parallel cells or battery series must be equipped with effective devices (such as diodes, fuses, etc.) required to prevent reverse current from causing danger; manufacturers of cells and battery packs must establish a good quality management system, etc. .

Packaging Requirements for Exported Lithium Batteries and Lithium Battery Equipment

The following requirements are mentioned in Clause P903 of the International Maritime Dangerous Regulations “List of Dangerous Goods” Packing Guidelines. It is divided according to different product categories, and the guidelines apply to related goods under UN 3090, 3091, 3480 and 3481.

1. The battery or battery pack packaged in the container should be protected against damage caused by the movement or position change of the battery or battery pack in the container. The container must meet the performance indicators of Packing Group II. For cells or battery packs with a gross weight greater than or equal to 12 kg, in a strong, impact-resistant casing, and for collections of such cells or battery packs, a strong outer packaging, protective cover, pallet or other handling equipment is also required. Likewise, such cells or battery packs must be secured against accidental movement, and the electrodes must not bear the weight of other stacked items.

2. The battery or battery pack packaged with the equipment, except that its container must meet the performance index of Class II packaging, and the equipment must be fixed and cannot be moved in the outer container. The battery or battery pack should also be completely wrapped.

3. The battery or battery pack installed in the equipment, in addition to meeting the previous requirements, should have measures to prevent accidental activation during transportation. At the same time, prevent the battery or battery pack from short-circuiting.

4. When the package contains a combination of lithium batteries in equipment and lithium batteries packaged with equipment, the package should be marked “Lithium metal batteries UN3091 or lithium ion UN3481 with equipment”. If a package contains both lithium ion batteries and lithium metal batteries, the package shall be marked as required for both battery types.

In addition to several points in P903 of the International Maritime Dangerous Packaging Guidelines, there are the following inspection and supervision points that need to be paid attention to:

One is that the watt-hour ratio must be marked on the outside of the container, whether it is a lithium-ion battery pack, or a lithium-ion battery pack contained in or packaged with the device.

Second, lithium battery products do not apply to limited packaging, nor do they apply to exempted packaging.

The third is that the package must be marked with lithium battery-specific marks or signs. Packages of lithium cells or lithium batteries that comply with Section 188 are marked with a “rectangle”. Other lithium cell or lithium battery packs use the Class 9 Dangerous Goods “Diamond Mark”. However, it is not excluded that some countries and regions require two signs to be posted at the same time, as long as the enterprise provides a description of the situation.

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